# Additional Problem 2: Attractors on Thue-Morse Words

$$\newcommand{\Att}{\mathrm{Att}}$$

The notion of an attractor provides a unifying framework for known dictionary-based compressors. A string attractor for a word $x$ is a subset $\Att$ of positions on $x$ for which each factor $u$ of $x$ has an occurrence covering at least one position in $\Att$. That is, there are positions $i$, $j$ and $t$ satisfying $u=x[i\dd j]$, $t\in\Att$ and $i\leq t\leq j$.

In this problem we concentrate on attractors on Thue-Morse words. Thue-Morse words are defined by the following recurrence: $\cases{ \tau_0 = \sa{a}, \cr \tau_{k+1} = \tau_k\overline{\tau_k}, & for k \geq 0, }$ where the bar morphism is defined by $\overline{\sa{a}}\,=\sa{b}$ and $\overline{\sa{b}}\,=\sa{a}$. Note the length of the $k$th Thue-Morse word is $|\tau_k|=2^k$ and $\overline{\tau_{k+1}} = \overline{\tau_k}\tau_k$.

Show that each Thue-Morse word $\tau_k$, $k\geq 4$, has an attractor of size at most $4$.

## References

• D. Kempa and N. Prezza, At the roots of dictionary compression: string attractors, In I. Diakonikolas, D. Kempe, and M. Henzinger, editors, Proceedings of the 50th Annual ACM SIGACT Symposium on Theory of Computing, STOC 2018, Los Angeles, CA, USA, June 25-29, 2018, pages 827-840. ACM, 2018.
• K. Kutsukake, T. Matsumoto, Y. Nakashima, S. Inenaga, H. Bannai, and M. Takeda, On repetitiveness measures of Thue-Morse words, In C. Boucher and S. V. Thankachan, editors, String Processing and Information Retrieval - 27th International Symposium, SPIRE 2020, Orlando, FL, USA, October 13-15, 2020, Proceedings, volume 12303 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 213-220. Springer, 2020.
• S. Mantaci, A. Restivo, G. Romana, G. Rosone, and M. Sciortino, A combinatorial view on string attractors, Theor. Comput. Sci. 850 (2021) 236-248.